Glossary of Terms

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Account Assignment Model
A template for journal entries used to save keystrokes for repetitive entries. Account assignment models can simplify journal entries that are created monthly by entering and saving multiple sets of identical data. The Account Assignment Model can be modified during posting to add/delete/modify line items. They can be created by any user or centrally by Duke University and Duke Health System accounting areas.
Accounting Document
The accounting document represents the original financial document in the system. An accounting document can also be generated from the creation of another type of document in SAP, such as an Invoice document. Accounting documents always consist of a document header with general information about the entire document and at least two line items for the debit and credit. The balance of the document must equal zero.
Accounting Period
The period within a fiscal year during which transactions can be recorded. For Duke, the accounting period is the fiscal month, as defined in the Fiscal Calendar published by the Financial Services division.
Accrual and Deferral
Accrual and deferral provides a temporary allocation of revenues and expenses to determine the profit for the period. A distinction is made between accrued income and deferred income; accrued income includes expenses before the closing key date, insofar as they represent expenses for a particular time after that date.
This is an attribute that exists in the PS module of SAP and it identifies the "Sponsor" of the project, such as NIH, DOE, Glaxo, etc.
Application Toolbar
The Application Toolbar is the fourth bar located beneath the Standard Toolbar at the top of the SAP screen. This Toolbar contains "shortcut" buttons (icons) for additional functions based on the screen displayed or task being performed in SAP.
An asset is defined as any building, land, equipment, or furnishings that qualifies as a capital item and is owned or leased by Duke. Every asset has an asset master record in SAP, which assigns an asset number and contains the company code, responsible cost center, location, and other information. An asset can be a simple asset or it can be represented by several asset master records (asset sub-numbers). In this case, the individual components (sub-numbers) are called assets.
Asset Class
The asset class is the main criterion for grouping fixed assets according to operational and legal requirements. Examples of asset classes at Duke include land, buildings and equipment, vehicles, and vessels. The asset class defines control parameters and default values for the depreciation calculation and other master data. Each asset master record is assigned to one and only one asset class.
Assigned JV Number
An Assigned JV number by design belongs to a department, not the contact person. This ensures the historical ability to identify the department responsible for any particular Journal Voucher.
Enterprises that function in a subsidiary capacity providing services, materials or facilities to University and non-University elements. Generally speaking, they cover their own expenses. Examples are DUAA, DUFS, Golf Course, Press, etc.
BFR (Budget and Financial Reporting) Code
Departmental position code within the company code structure.
Also referred to as "Organizational (Org.) Code".

The BFR code is a series of ten digit codes within the General Ledger that provides a five level organizational hierarchy structure. Every position and cost object at Duke will be linked to a BFR code at some level in the hierarchy.
Abbreviation for "Board of Trustees".
BPS (Budget Planning & Simulation)
BPS is a web-based module that replaced the use of "Pillar" for Budget Planning.
Chart of Accounts
Equivalent to Duke's set of object codes (old terminology), the Chart of Accounts (COA) in SAP contains a detailed list of G/L (general ledger) accounts within account categories. The COA includes G/L accounts for the categories of Assets, Liabilities, Fund Equity, Revenues, and Expenses. Only one COA, which is identified by the value "DUKE", exists in SAP for all the companies within Duke, although different G/L accounts can be configured by each company.
Command Code
A Command Code is a two or three-digit value, usually beginning with a forward slash ( / ), that when entered into the Command Field on a SAP screen, performs functions in like opening or closing sessions and transactions. So, a Command Code is yet another way to navigate the SAP system. Most Command Codes can be used alone or with a four-digit Transaction Code.
Command Field
A field located on the Menu bar of the most SAP screens. This field can be used to enter Transaction codes and/or Command codes to navigate the system instead of using lengthy menu paths.
A commitment is the reservation of funds for a future expenditure. A commitment is created for both an electronic Purchase Requisition and a Purchase Order. The commitment amount will become an actual expense, when the goods are received (applicable for certain areas, such as Durham Regional Hospital and Raleigh Community Hospital with central receiving) or when the Invoice is paid against the Purchase Order.
Commitment Item
A commitment item represents the functional aspects (expenditure and revenue structures) within the Financial Management module. In other words, a commitment item in FM is the equivalent of a cost element in CO. Each cost element in CO must be assigned to a commitment item in FM, to ensure that FM receives the transaction information occurring for that cost element (e.g., cost element 646000 is linked to commitment item 646000).
Company Code
A company code is a four-digit code corresponding to an independent accounting or business unit within Duke. The company code is a division that maintains the accounting balances separately (separate set of books) and creates the legally required Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Statement.
Controlling Area
Identifies the organization used for cost accounting purposes. All companies associated with Duke belong to the controlling area "DUKE". It is possible to carry out common controlling for more than one company code in a controlling area. Having all company codes in the same controlling area allows various assessment and allocations across companies. All companies must have the same fiscal year to be in the same controlling area.
Cost Center
Previously referred to as "Fund Code", the Cost Center defines the owner of costs or general operating expenses. Cost centers are organized by areas of responsibility. The Cost Centers are briefly outlined by Company Code as follows:

* In Company Code 0010 have seven-digit cost centers beginning with 15x, 168, 180, 190, 4xx, 5xx, 6xx, 8xx, and 9xx (such as example 157-3124). Some of DCRI's Cost Centers contain additional digits.

* Company Codes 0020, 0030, 0040, 0050 and 0060, have nine-digit Cost Centers (such as example 306060025).
Cost Center Group / Standard Hierarchy
A Cost Center Group is a grouping of one or more individual Cost Centers into areas of responsibility for reporting purposes. Each Cost Center Group is then grouped into other Cost Center Groups to ultimately create the Standard Hierarchy which includes all company codes for Duke (like an organizational chart for reporting with a top node value of "DUKE_CCA"). Each company code's Cost Center Groups are organized within the Standard Hierarchy as follows:

In Company Code 0010, the Cost Center Group "10" contains other Cost Center Groups, organized by ten-digit BFR (Budget Financial Responsibility) codes, and then by seven-digit fund code for within each BFR code.

In health system related Company Codes from 0020 - 0060, the top Cost Center Groups for each Company Code are the last two digits of each Company Code (e.g., Company Code 0030 is a Cost Center Group of "30"). These Cost Center Groups for each company are organized by areas of responsibility or service lines into eight digit Cost Center Groups, which contain other eight digit Cost Center Groups or individual nine-digit Cost Centers. All eight digit Cost Center Groups ultimately "roll-up" to the two digit Cost Center Group (last two digits of the Company Code).
Cost Element
A six-digit code that defines and classifies revenue or expenses/costs (usually equals Duke's old four-digit Object Code + two zeroes). The term "Revenue element" is also seen in the CO module to refer to codes for revenue.

Cost elements fall into two categories:

1. Primary Cost Elements = Used for initial postings of revenue and expense, and have corresponding G/L Accounts.
2. Secondary Cost Elements = Used for allocations (movement of an initial posting to other "owners") of revenue and expense, and do not have corresponding G/L Accounts.
Cost Element Group
A grouping of a set of similar or like Cost Elements used to select transactions for reporting.

For example, the Cost Element Group of "6XXXXX" contains all Cost Elements from 600000 to 699999. Selecting this group on the initial screen of a report will generate a report showing any activity posted to all expense Cost Elements.

Another example, the Cost Element Group of "HSRPT", is comprised of many other Cost Element Groups and contains all Cost Elements for revenue and expenses, grouped specifically the way a Duke Health System company code needs to analyze revenue and expense. Selecting this group on the initial screen of a report will generate a report showing all revenue and expense activity grouped into subtotals for Health System reporting, such as Inpatient Revenue, Outpatient Revenue, Total Patient Revenue, etc. Each subtotal is a Cost Element Group as well.

The Cost Element Group of "DUKE_CE" is also comprised of many other Cost Element Groups and contains all Cost Elements for revenue and expense, grouped specifically the way that Duke University areas need to analyze revenue and expense. Selecting this group on the initial screen of a report will generate a report showing all revenue and expense activity grouped in subtotals. This group is intended more for University reporting, but can be used by the Health System as well.
Cost Object
The term Cost Object defines the "owner" of or responsible department for revenue, expense, or project related expense/revenue in financial modules.

Cost Objects are further defined by the following categories / terms:

Cost Center
Defines the owner of general operating expenses, allocated, loan, endowment, and agency cost objects.

Profit Center
Defines the owner of general revenue. For DUHS companies, the Profit Center also collects information from the corresponding cost center and WBS element, which allows DUHS to see revenue, expenses, and capital acquisitions in the Profit Center report.

WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) Element
Defines the owner of revenues and expenses for a project. Typically, projects have a limited duration of life, but can cross multiple fiscal years. A project for Duke includes restricted funds (research projects and clinical trials), plant funds (construction projects and DUHS capital acquisitions).

NOTE: DRH is not using PS for restricted funds and RCH does not have restricted funds.

All these terms replace the term "fund code" and "department number" used by various Duke companies in the past.

The Duke University Health System cost object number contains 9 digits:

* The first 2 digits represent the last two digits of the company code (e.g., 30 for Duke Hospital)

* The same 9 digit number is used for a department's Cost Center and Profit Center, so there is now just one code to remember for revenues and expenses. There is a different WBS Element number for each Project, except for DUHS Capital Acquisitions prior to July 2000. NOTE: Duke Hospital and DUAP departments may still need to use the old seven digit fund code for some systems until they are converted to the SAP format.

The Duke University cost object number contains 7 digits:

* The cost object is either a Cost Center (expense collector for seven-digit funds beginning with 15x, 168,180, 190, 4xx, 5xx, 6xx, 8xx, and 9xx), Profit Center (revenue collector for seven-digit funds beginning with 11x and 14x funds), or WBS Element (expense and revenue collector for Project seven-digit funds beginning with 3xx or 7xx); and has the same digits and meaning as before SAP was implemented, except without the dash.
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